JOURNAL ARTICLE

Rehabilitation of atrophic maxilla: a review of 101 zygomatic implants

Joan Pi Urgell, Verónica Revilla Gutiérrez, Cosme Gay Gay Escoda
Medicina Oral, Patología Oral y Cirugía Bucal 2008, 13 (6): E363-70
18521062

INTRODUCTION: Zygomatic implants are a good rehabilitation alternative for upper maxilla with severe bone reabsorption. These implants reduce the need for onlay-type bone grafting in the posterior sectors and for maxillary sinus lift procedures - limiting the use of bone grafts to the anterior zone of the upper jaw in those cases where grafting is considered necessary.

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the survival of 101 zygomatic implants placed in upper maxilla presenting important bone reabsorption, with a follow-up of 1-72 months.

PATIENTS AND METHODS: A retrospective study was made of 101 Zygoma(R) implants (Nobel Biocare, Göteborg, Sweden) placed in 54 patients with totally edentulous and atrophic upper maxilla, in the period between 1998-2004. There were 35 women and 19 men, subjected to rehabilitation in the form of fixed prostheses and overdentures using 1-2 zygomatic implants and 2-7 implants in the anterior maxillary zone. The principal study variables were smoking, a history of sinusitis, the degree of bone reabsorption, and peri-implant bone loss, among others.

RESULTS: The descriptive analysis of the 101 zygomatic implants placed in 54 patients with a mean age of 56 years (range 38-75) yielded a percentage survival of 96.04%, with four failed implants that were removed (two before and two after prosthetic loading). Nine patients were smokers, and none of the 54 subjects reported a history of sinus disorders.

DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSIONS: Zygomatic implants are designed for use in compromised upper maxilla. They allow the clinician to shorten the treatment time, affording an interesting alternative for fixed prosthetic rehabilitation. This study confirms that zygomatic bone offers predictable anchorage and acceptable support function for prostheses in atrophic jaws. However, these implants are not without complications. Longer-term evaluations are needed of zygomatic implant survival in order to establish a correct clinical prognosis.

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