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Accuracy of bedside electroencephalographic monitoring in comparison with simultaneous continuous conventional electroencephalography for seizure detection in term infants

Divyen K Shah, Mark T Mackay, Shelly Lavery, Susan Watson, A Simon Harvey, John Zempel, Amit Mathur, Terrie E Inder
Pediatrics 2008, 121 (6): 1146-54

OBJECTIVE: Our goals were to compare (1) single-channel amplitude-integrated electroencephalography alone, (2) 2-channel amplitude-integrated electroencephalography alone, and (3) amplitude-integrated electroencephalography plus 2-channel electroencephalography with simultaneous continuous conventional electroencephalography for seizure detection in term infants to check the accuracy of limited channels and compare the different modalities of bedside electroencephalography monitoring.

METHODS: Infants referred to a tertiary center with clinical seizures underwent simultaneous continuous conventional electroencephalography and 2-channel (C3-P3 and C4-P4) bedside monitoring. Off-line analysis of the continuous conventional electroencephalographic results was performed independently by 2 neurologists. Two experienced neonatal readers reviewed results obtained with amplitude-integrated electroencephalography and 2-channel electroencephalography combined and single-channel and 2-channel amplitude-integrated electroencephalography. All readings were performed independently and then compared.

RESULTS: Twenty-one term newborns were monitored. Seizures were detected in 7 patients who had up to 12 electrical seizures, with 1 infant in status epilepticus. Seizures were identified correctly in 6 of 7 patients with amplitude-integrated electroencephalography plus 2-channel electroencephalography. The missed infant had an isolated 12-second seizure. With amplitude-integrated electroencephalography plus 2-channel electroencephalography, 31 of 41 non-status epilepticus seizures were correctly identified (sensitivity, 76%; specificity, 78%; positive predictive value, 78%; negative predictive value, 78%), with a substantial level of interrater agreement. The seizures missed were predominantly slow sharp waves of occipital origin from a single patient (7 of 10 seizures). Nine false-positive results were obtained in 351 hours of recording (1 false-positive result per 39 hours). These were thought to be related to muscle, electrode, and patting artifacts. Use of amplitude-integrated electroencephalography alone (1 or 2 channel) provided low sensitivity (27%-56%) and low interobserver agreement.

CONCLUSIONS: Limited-channel bedside electroencephalography combining amplitude-integrated electroencephalography with 2-channel electroencephalography, interpreted by experienced neonatal readers, detected the majority of electrical seizures in at-risk newborn infants.

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