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Viral lower urinary tract infections.

Lower urinary tract infections (UTIs) are common among the general population and are most often caused by bacterial pathogens. Viruses are an uncommon cause of UTIs in an immunocompetent host; however, viruses are increasingly recognized as the cause of lower UTI, especially hemorrhagic cystitis, among immunocompromised patients. BK virus, adenovirus, and cytomegalovirus are predominant pathogens involved in hemorrhagic cystitis after stem cell and solid organ transplantation, and their early diagnosis and treatment may prevent significant morbidity of hemorrhagic cystitis. The diagnosis of viral lower UTI is based on molecular techniques, and real-time polymerase chain reaction is often the method of choice because it allows for quantification of viral load. Cidofovir is becoming a drug of choice in viral UTIs because it is active against the most common viral pathogens. This review discusses the epidemiology, pitfalls in diagnosis, and current treatment of viral UTIs.

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