Safety and efficacy of sitagliptin in patients with type 2 diabetes and chronic renal insufficiency

J C N Chan, R Scott, J C Arjona Ferreira, D Sheng, E Gonzalez, M J Davies, P P Stein, K D Kaufman, J M Amatruda, D Williams-Herman
Diabetes, Obesity & Metabolism 2008, 10 (7): 545-55

OBJECTIVE: To assess the safety of sitagliptin in patients with type 2 diabetes and moderate [creatinine clearance (CrCl) > or =30 to <50 ml/min] or severe renal insufficiency [CrCl <30 ml/min including patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) on dialysis]. The efficacy of sitagliptin in this patient population was also assessed.

METHODS: In a 54-week, randomized, double-blind, parallel-group study, patients with baseline glycosylated haemoglobin A(1c) (HbA(1c)) values of 6.5-10% were allocated (2:1) to sitagliptin (for 54 weeks) or the sequence of placebo (for 12 weeks) followed by active treatment with glipizide (for 42 weeks). To achieve plasma concentrations similar to those observed in patients with normal renal function treated with 100 mg sitagliptin once daily, patients with moderate renal insufficiency were allocated to receive sitagliptin 50 mg once daily and patients with severe renal insufficiency to receive 25 mg once daily. Glipizide treatment was initiated at 2.5 or 5 mg/day and uptitrated to a maximum of 20 mg/day.

RESULTS: Patients (N = 91) with a mean baseline HbA(1c) value of 7.7% (range: 6.2-10.3%) were randomized to sitagliptin (n = 65) or placebo (n = 26). After 12 weeks, the mean change [95% confidence interval (CI)] from baseline in HbA(1c) was -0.6% (-0.8, -0.4) in the sitagliptin group compared with -0.2% (-0.4, 0.1) in the placebo group [between-group difference (95% CI) = -0.4% (-0.7, -0.1)]. At 54 weeks, patients continuously treated with sitagliptin had a mean change (95% CI) from baseline in HbA(1c) of -0.7% (-0.9, -0.4). The overall incidence of adverse experiences was generally similar between groups. Between-group differences in incidences of specific clinical adverse experiences were generally small; however, the proportion of patients for whom hypoglycaemia was reported was lower in the sitagliptin group (4.6%) compared with the placebo/glipizide group (23.1%). Consistent with the high mortality risk in this patient population, there were six deaths during this 54-week study [5 of 65 patients (7.7%) in the sitagliptin group and 1 of 26 patients (3.8%) in the placebo/glipizide group]; no death was considered by the investigator to be drug related. The overall incidences of drug-related and serious adverse experiences and discontinuations because of adverse experiences were generally similar between groups.

CONCLUSIONS: In this study, sitagliptin was generally well tolerated and provided effective glycaemic control in patients with type 2 diabetes and moderate to severe renal insufficiency, including patients with ESRD on dialysis.

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