JOURNAL ARTICLE
RESEARCH SUPPORT, N.I.H., EXTRAMURAL
REVIEW
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Nephrolithiasis.

Primary Care 2008 June
Kidney stones affect more than 5% of adults in the United States, and the prevalence is rising. The fundamental cause for all stones is supersaturation of urine with respect to the stone components; factors affecting solubility include urine volume, pH, and total solute excretion. Calcium stones are the most common in both adults and children and are associated with several metabolic disorders, the most common of which is idiopathic hypercalciuria. Therapy to prevent stones rests on lowering supersaturation, using both diet and medication. Effective treatment decreases stone recurrence and the need for procedures for stone removal.

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