Atmospheric input of POPs into Lake Maggiore (Northern Italy): PBDE concentrations and profile in air, precipitation, settling material and sediments

G Mariani, E Canuti, J Castro-Jiménez, E H Christoph, S J Eisenreich, G Hanke, H Skejo, G Umlauf
Chemosphere 2008, 73 (1 Suppl): S114-21
Large lakes are sinks for many chemical pollutants but the role of the atmosphere in delivering PBDEs (polybrominated diphenyl ethers) is not well known. In this study we estimated inputs of PBDEs from the atmosphere to Lake Maggiore and the delivery via settling material to accumulated bottom sediments. Sampling consisted of one simultaneous week of air and bulk deposition during Spring 2005, an integrated 4-month period of collected settling material (via sediment trap), and superficial bottom sediments near the sediment trap deployment and tributary mouths of the lake. Concentration of total PBDEs (Sigma 8) in the sediments ranged between 0.06 and 27 ng g(-1), and two different patterns were observed. One pattern was dominated by BDE-47 and BDE-99 and a second by BDE-209. The latter pattern suggested input from local source(s). Total PBDEs in air were 107 pg m(-3) with a pattern dominated by BDE-47. The bulk deposition rate of total PBDEs for precipitation was measurated to be 17.6 ng m(-2) day(-1) where BDE-209 exhibited the highest concentration. For aquatic settling material the flux was 3.57 ng m(-2) day(-1) and was dominated by congeners BDE-47 and BDE-99. The bulk deposition and settling material fluxes were in the same range for the less brominated congeners, while for the hepta- and deca-brominated PBDEs the fluxes in the settling material were one order of magnitude lower. This suggests different sedimentation processes among congeners and/or the presence of local sources that influence the relative distribution in water column.

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