To study the effectiveness and safety of ketamine and midazolam procedural sedation in the incision and drainage of abscesses in the adult emergency department

Tiong Beng Sim, Chong Meng Seet
European Journal of Emergency Medicine: Official Journal of the European Society for Emergency Medicine 2008, 15 (3): 169-72
The objective of the report was to study the efficacy and safety of ketamine and midazolam combination in the procedural sedation of incision and drainage of abscesses in the adult emergency department (ED) patients. This prospective observational study enrolled patients aged 16-60 years (American Society of Anesthesiologists class I) requiring abscess drainage in an adult ED. Patients received 2 mg/kg of ketamine infusion over 5 min and midazolam 2-5 mg titrated to deep sedation according to Ramsay sedation scale. Primary outcome was patient satisfaction using pain score after procedure. Secondary outcomes included adverse effects, hemodynamics alterations and recovery time. Descriptive statistics were calculated using SPSS software. Fifteen patients were recruited. One patient was excluded because of difficulty with pain score interpretation. Seventy-nine percent were male patients. The mean age was 29. The mean size of abscess was 3.4 cm. The mean dose of midazolam was 3.2 mg. Eighty-six percent did not experience any pain for the procedure. Only two patients (14%) reported mild pain during the procedure. There were no significant adverse events or complications. Three patients had giddiness, two had vomiting and only one reported an unpleasant dream. The median systolic blood pressure and heart rate elevation were 30+/-5.1 mmHg and 12.5+/-3.2/min, respectively. The median time for blood pressure and pulse rate to return to baseline was 20+/-2.7 min. The use of ketamine and midazolam sedation is both well tolerated and effective for adults in the ED undergoing incision and drainage of abscesses. This study is limited by the small sample size.

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