Relationship between high platelet turnover and platelet function in high-risk patients with coronary artery disease on dual antiplatelet therapy

Francesca Cesari, Rossella Marcucci, Roberto Caporale, Rita Paniccia, Eloisa Romano, Gian Franco Gensini, Rosanna Abbate, Anna Maria Gori
Thrombosis and Haemostasis 2008, 99 (5): 930-5
A high platelet turnover rate produce a population of immature reticulated platelets (RP) that could confer, despite of antiplatelet drugs, a residual platelet reactivity (RPR) in coronary artery disease (CAD) patients. To assess the influence of RP on platelet reactivity in CAD patients on dual antiplatelet therapy we measured RP in 372 patients by using the Sysmex XE-2100 haematology analyzer and platelet function by optical platelet aggregometry (PA) on platelet-rich-plasma induced by 1 mmol arachidonic acid (AA-PA) and 10 microM ADP (ADP-PA). RPR was defined as either AA-PA>20% or ADP-PA>70%. RP were expressed as a percentage of RP of the total optical platelet count (immature platelet fraction; IPF) and as the percentage of RP highly fluorescent (highly fluorescent immature platelet fraction; H-IPF). Moderate but significant positive correlations between PA, IPF, H-IPF, and mean platelet volume (MPV) were found. According to tertiles of IPF, H-IPF and MPV, a significant trend for an increase of platelet aggregation by AA and ADP was evidenced. Furthermore, a significant difference for IPF, H-IPF and MPV between patients with and without RPR was observed. A linear regression analysis showed that IPF, H-IPF and MPV significantly affected PA measured by AA and ADP. At multivariate linear regression analysis these associations were confirmed. Moreover, a logistic regression analysis demonstrated that IPF, H-IPF and MPV significantly influenced the risk of RPR, and in the multivariate model these results remained significant. This study indicates that a high rate of platelet turnover is a new mechanism associated with platelet reactivity in high risk CAD patients on dual antiplatelet therapy.

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