COMPARATIVE STUDY
CONTROLLED CLINICAL TRIAL
JOURNAL ARTICLE
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Executive functioning in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: combined type with and without a stimulant medication history.

Behavioral and neuropsychological functioning in unmedicated children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) who have a history of medication treatment (Rx) versus those who are treatment naïve (TN) has, to our knowledge, not been previously studied. Ninety-four children in four groups (ADHD/Rx, ADHD/TN, learning disabilities [LD], and controls) were evaluated, while unmedicated, on measures of achievement, neuropsychological functioning, and behavior. The ADHD/Rx group performed significantly better than the TN group on writing, Stroop interference, and measures of attention, and performed as well as the control group on executive functioning, verbal working memory, and academics. Behaviorally, the ADHD groups showed more difficulty with mood and externalizing behaviors compared with the LD and control groups, with the ADHD/TN performing the most poorly. Findings suggest that the ADHD/Rx group shows better executive and academic functioning even when unmedicated.

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