Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
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Intravitreal bevacizumab to treat iris neovascularization and neovascular glaucoma secondary to ischemic retinal diseases in 41 consecutive cases.

Ophthalmology 2008 September
PURPOSE: To evaluate the biologic efficacy of intravitreal bevacizumab (IVB) for iris neovascularization (INV) or neovascular glaucoma (NVG) in patients with ischemic retinal disorders.

DESIGN: Retrospective, consecutive, interventional case series.

PARTICIPANTS: Thirty patients (41 eyes) with INV or NVG secondary to ischemic retinal disorders.

METHODS: Patients received IVB (1 mg) as the initial treatment for INV or NVG and were followed up for at least 6 months. Ophthalmic evaluations included measurement of visual acuity and intraocular pressure (IOP), a complete ophthalmic examination, and fluorescein angiography. Patients were divided into 3 subgroups: INV without elevated IOP (INV group), NVG with an open angle (O-NVG group), and NVG with angle closure (C-NVG group) for outcomes analysis.

MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The controllability of IOP by IVB, incidence of recurrence, and requirement for surgery to treat NVG.

RESULTS: No significant ocular or systemic adverse events developed during follow-up (range, 6-22 months; mean, 13.3 months). The mean IOP levels were 14.7, 31.2, and 44.9 mmHg at baseline in the INV, O-NVG, and C-NVG groups, respectively. In the INV group (9 eyes), the INV regressed or resolved after 1 injection. Iris neovascularization recurred in 4 eyes by 6 months and stabilized after repeated injections without IOP elevation. In the O-NVG group (17 eyes), rapid neovascular regression with successful IOP normalization (<or=21 mmHg) occurred in 12 eyes (71%) within 1 week after 1 injection. Five (29%) of the 17 eyes required surgery by 6 months despite repeated IVB injections, and a total of 7 eyes (41%) underwent surgery during follow-up. In the C-NVG group (15 eyes), IVB caused INV resolution but failed to lower the IOP. Fourteen (93%) of 15 eyes required surgery by 2 months after initial IVB and achieved IOP stabilization. The mean interval between IVB and surgery was significantly shorter in the C-NVG group than in the O-NVG group (P<0.001).

CONCLUSIONS: Intravitreal bevacizumab is well tolerated, effectively stabilized INV activity, and controlled IOP in patients with INV alone and early-stage NVG without angle closure. In advanced NVG, IVB cannot control IOP but may be used adjunctively to improve subsequent surgical results. Further evaluation in controlled randomized studies is warranted.

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