On designing and testing transformations for derivation of standard 12-lead/18-lead electrocardiograms and vectorcardiograms from reduced sets of predictor leads

B Milan Horácek, James W Warren, John J Wang
Journal of Electrocardiology 2008, 41 (3): 220-9
The aim of this study was to develop and evaluate transformation coefficients for deriving the standard 12-lead electrocardiogram (ECG), 18-lead ECG (with additional leads V7, V8, V9, V3R, V4R, V5R), and Frank vectorcardiogram (VCG) from reduced lead sets using 3 "limb" electrodes at Mason-Likar torso sites combined with 2 chest electrodes at precordial sites V1 to V6; 15 such lead sets exist and each can be recorded with 6-wire cable. As a study population, we used Dalhousie Superset (n = 892) that includes healthy subjects, postinfarction patients, and patients with a history of ventricular tachycardia. For each subject, 120-lead ECG recordings of 15-second duration were averaged, and all samples of the QRST complex for leads of interest were extracted; these data were used to derive--by regression analysis--general and patient-specific coefficients for lead transformations. These coefficients were then used to predict 12-lead/18-lead ECG sets and 3-lead VCG from 15 reduced lead sets, and the success of these predictions was assessed by 3 goodness-of-fit measures applied to the entire QRST waveform and to the ST deviation at J point; these 3 measures were similarity coefficient (SC in percentage), relative error (in percentage), and RMS error (in microvolts). Our results show that the best pair for predicting the standard 12-lead ECG by either general coefficients (mean SC = 95.56) or patient-specific coefficients (mean SC = 99.11) is V2 and V4; the best pair for deriving the 18-lead set by general coefficients (mean SC = 93.74) or by patient-specific coefficients (mean SC = 98.71) is V1 and V4; the best pair for deriving the Frank X, Y, Z leads is V1 and V3 for general coefficients (mean SC = 95.76) and V3 and V6 for patient-specific coefficients (mean SC = 99.05). The differences in mean SC among the first 8 to 10 predictor sets in each ranking table are within 1% of the highest SC value. Thus, in conclusion, there are several near-equivalent choices of reduced lead set using 6-wire cable that offer a good prediction of 12-lead/18-lead ECG and VCG; a pair most appropriate for the clinical application can be selected.

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