[Hepatocyte oxidant stress and alcoholic liver disease]

L Conde de la Rosa, H Moshage, N Nieto
Revista Española de Enfermedades Digestivas 2008, 100 (3): 156-63
Acute and chronic alcohol consumption increases the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), and enhances lipid peroxidation of lipids, proteins, and DNA. The mechanism by which alcohol causes cell injury is still not clear but a major role for ROS and lipid peroxidation-end products is considered. Many pathways have been suggested to play a role on how ethanol induces a state of "oxidative stress", including redox-state changes, acetaldehyde production, damage to the mitochondria, membrane injury, apoptosis, ethanol-induced hypoxia, effects on the immune system and altered cytokine production, increased endotoxin levels and activation of Kupffer cells, mobilization of iron, changes in the antioxidant defense, particularly mitochondrial glutathione (GSH), one electron oxidation of ethanol to 1-hydroxy-ethyl radical, and induction of CYP2E1. These pathways are not exclusive of one another and it is likely that several, indeed many systems contribute to the ability of ethanol to induce a state of oxidative stress.

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