The analysis of risk factors of impacting mortality rate in severe multiple trauma patients with posttraumatic acute respiratory distress syndrome

Junsong Wu, Lei Sheng, Yuefeng Ma, Jun Gu, Mao Zhang, Jianxin Gan, Shaowen Xu, Guanyu Jiang
American Journal of Emergency Medicine 2008, 26 (4): 419-24

OBJECTIVE: We hypothesize that not all of the traditional risk factors of impacting mortality rate in commonly traumatic populations with posttraumatic acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) are independently associated with those patient populations identified with severe multiple trauma. Rather, we postulate that there may exist significantly different impacting degrees of specific risk factors in stratified patients (surviving beyond 24 and 96 hours)--more severe multiple trauma with higher injury score and long-term mechanical ventilation as well.

METHODS: This is a retrospective cohort study regarding trauma as a single cause for emergency intensive care unit admission. Twenty-two items of potential risk factors of impacting mortality rate were calculated by univariate and multivariate logistic analyses to find distinctive items in these severe multiple trauma patients.

RESULTS: The unadjusted odds ratio and 95% confidence intervals of mortality rate were found to be associated with 6 (out of 22) risk factors, namely, (1) Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II score, (2) duration of trauma factor, (3) aspiration of gastric contents, (4) sepsis, (5) pulmonary contusion, and (6) duration of mechanical ventilation. Significant results also appeared in stratified patients.

CONCLUSIONS: Impact of pulmonary contusion and Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II score contributing to prediction of mortality may exist in the early phase after trauma. Sepsis is still a vital risk factor referring to systemic inflammatory response syndrome, infection, secondary multiple organ dysfunction, etc. Discharging trauma factors as early as possible becomes the critical therapeutic measure. Aspiration of gastric contents in emergency intensive care unit admission could lead to incremental mortality rate due to aspiration pneumonia. Long-standing mechanical ventilation should be constrained because it is likely to cause severe refractory complications.


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