Autoimmune retinopathy: a review and summary

John R Heckenlively, Henry A Ferreyra
Seminars in Immunopathology 2008, 30 (2): 127-34
Three main forms of autoimmune retinopathy (AIR) have been identified over the last 15 years: cancer-associated retinopathy (CAR), melanoma-associated retinopathy (MAR), and nonneoplastic autoimmune retinopathy (npAIR). In this chapter, the term AIR will be used to encompass all three disorders where there is commonality to their features. Complicating the issue is that AIR can be a secondary complication of other conditions such as retinitis pigmentosa, ocular trauma, birdshot retinopathy, acute zonal occult outer retinopathy (AZOOR), or multiple evanescent white dot syndrome (MEWDS). The many forms of AIR tend to have common clinical features despite the fact that there has been no uniform set of anti-retinal antibodies circulating in these patients. Patients tend to have a wide variance of anti-retinal antibody activity often with three to six different antibodies found on immunoblots. Patients typically present with a sudden onset of photopsia, rapid visual loss, and abnormal electroretinograms (ERGs). Most patients have a panretinal degeneration without pigment deposits.

Full Text Links

Find Full Text Links for this Article


You are not logged in. Sign Up or Log In to join the discussion.

Trending Papers

Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read

Save your favorite articles in one place with a free QxMD account.


Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"

We want to hear from doctors like you!

Take a second to answer a survey question.