Pharmacokinetic, pharmacodynamic, and tolerability profiles of the dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitor alogliptin: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, multiple-dose study in adult patients with type 2 diabetes

Paul Covington, Ronald Christopher, Michael Davenport, Penny Fleck, Qais A Mekki, Elisabeth R Wann, Aziz Karim
Clinical Therapeutics 2008, 30 (3): 499-512

BACKGROUND: Alogliptin is a highly selective dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) inhibitor that is under development for the treatment of type 2 diabetes (T2D).

OBJECTIVES: This study was conducted to evaluate the pharmacokinetic (PK), pharmacodynamic (PD), and tolerability profiles and explore the efficacy of multiple oral doses of alogliptin in patients with T2D.

METHODS: In this randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group study, patients with T2D between the ages of 18 and 75 years were assigned to receive a single oral dose of alogliptin 25, 100, or 400 mg or placebo (4:4:4:3 ratio) once daily for 14 days. PK profiles and plasma DPP-4 inhibition were assessed on days 1 and 14. Tolerability was monitored based on adverse events (AEs) and clinical assessments. Efficacy end points included 4-hour postprandial plasma glucose (PPG) and insulin concentrations, and fasting glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA(1c)), C-peptide, and fructosamine values.

RESULTS: Of 56 enrolled patients (57% women; 93% white; mean age, 55.6 years; mean weight, 89.8 kg; mean body mass index, 31.7 kg/m(2)), 54 completed the study. On day 14, the median T(max) was ~1 hour and the mean t(1/2) was 12.5 to 21.1 hours across all alogliptin doses. Alogliptin was primarily excreted renally (mean fraction of drug excreted in urine from 0 to 72 hours after dosing, 60.8%-63.4%). On day 14, mean peak DPP-4 inhibition ranged from 94% to 99%, and mean inhibition at 24 hours after dosing ranged from 82% to 97% across all alogliptin doses. Significant decreases from baseline to day 14 were observed in mean 4-hour PPG after breakfast with alogliptin 25 mg (-32.5 mg/dL; P=0.008), 100 mg (-37.2; P=0.002), and 400 mg (-65.6 mg/dL; P<0.001) compared with placebo (+8.2 mg/dL). Significant decreases in mean 4-hour PPG were also observed for alogliptin 25, 100, and 400 mg compared with placebo after lunch (-15.8 mg/dL [P=0.030]; -29.2 mg/dL [P=0.002]; -27.1 mg/dL [P=0.009]; and +14.3 mg/dL, respectively) and after dinner (-21.9 mg/dL [P=0.017]; -39.7 mg/dL [P<0.001]; -35.3 mg/dL [P=0.003]; and +12.8 mg/dL). Significant decreases in mean HbA(1c) from baseline to day 15 were observed for alogliptin 25 mg (-0.22%; P=0.044), 100 mg (-0.40%; P<0.001), and 400 mg (-0.28%; P=0.018) compared with placebo (+0.05%). Significant decreases in mean fructosamine concentrations from baseline to day 15 were observed for alogliptin 100 mg (-25.6 micromol/L; P=0.001) and 400 mg (-19.9 micromol/L; P=0.010) compared with placebo (+15.0 micromol/L). No statistically significant changes were noted in mean 4-hour postprandial insulin or mean fasting C-peptide. No serious AEs were reported, and no patients discontinued the study because of an AE. The most commonly reported AEs for alogliptin 400 mg were headache in 6 of 16 patients (compared with 0/15 for alogliptin 25 mg, 1/14 for alogliptin 100 mg, and 3/11 for placebo), dizziness in 4 of 16 patients (compared with 1/15, 2/14, and 1/11, respectively), and constipation in 3 of 16 patients (compared with no patients in any other group). No other individual AE was reported by >2 patients receiving the 400-mg dose. Apart from dizziness, no individual AE was reported by >1 patient receiving either the 25- or 100-mg dose.

CONCLUSIONS: In these adult patients with T2D, alogliptin inhibited plasma DPP-4 activity and significantly decreased PPG levels. The PK and PD profiles of multiple doses of alogliptin in this study supported use of a once-daily dosing regimen. Alogliptin was generally well tolerated, with no dose-limiting toxicity.


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