[Study on the association of hand, foot and mouth disease and enterovirus 71/CA16 among children in Beijing, 2007]

Ru-nan Zhu, Yuan Qian, Jie Deng, Jiang-feng Xing, Lin-qing Zhao, Fang Wang, Bin Liao, Xiao-xu Ren, Ying Li, Qi Zhang, Jie Li
Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue za Zhi, Zhonghua Liuxingbingxue Zazhi 2007, 28 (10): 1004-8

OBJECTIVE: To reveal the etiological agent of hand, foot and mouth disease in children in Beijing.

METHODS: Throat swabs were collected from 6 infants and young children with hand, foot and mouth disease who visited the affiliated Children's Hospital from May to June 2007. Aspirated fluid from tracheal intubatton, serum and cerebral spinal fluid (CSF) were collected from a 9 years old girl (No.4243) having central neural system complication of severe hand, foot and mouth disease and admitted to the hospital from the Emergency Department. Throat swab and aspirated fluid were inoculated into the cell lines Hep-2, MDCK and Vero for virus isolation. RNAs were extracted by Trizol from 6 throat swab specimens and aspirated fluid, serum while CSF was from that severe case (No.4243). The gene fragment from 5' UTR of enterovirus was amplified from throat swabs and aspirated fluid by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) with the primer pairs located at the untranslated region of all enterovirus. EV71 was identified by RT-PCR with the 2 and half primer pairs located at different parts of VP1 gene of EV71. The PCR products for VP1 encoding gene of EV71 from the specimens were sequenced and sequence analysis was performed by comparing those published VP1 genes of EV71. EV71 and CA16 specific primers were used to identify the isolates by RT-PCR and the sequences were directly determined from PCR products.

RESULTS: Gene fragments with expected molecular weight were amplified from all 6 throat swabs and the aspirate by the primer pairs universal for the 5' UTR of enterovirus, suggesting that these patients with hand, foot and mouth disease were infected by entorovirus. Out of these 7 specimens, 2 throat swabs and the aspirate were also showing positive for the VP1 of the EV71 by different primer sets. Sequence analysis revealed that the sequences for the amplicons from 1 throat swab (No. F4211) and the aspirate shared highest homology with those published EV71, indicating that these specimens were truly positive for EV71. The sequences amplified from these specimens shared 100% and 98.9% homology to each other and were closer to the sequences of EV71 identified from Zhejiang province than those from Taiwan and strain BrCr. Gene fragments for 5' UTR of enterovirus were obtained by RT-PCR after CPE appeared in 6 out of 7 inoculations including that aspirate fluid in Vero cell, indicating that enteroviruses were isolated from these specimens. Virus isolates from one throat swab (No. F4211) and the aspirate (No. 4243) were positive by RT-PCR with the primer pairs for EV71, which was consistent with RT-PCR amplification directly from specimens. Virus isolates from other 4 specimens were CA16 by RT-PCR and sequence analysis.

CONCLUSION: These data suggested that hand, foot and mouth disease recently appeared in children in Beijing was related with EV71 and CA16. EV71 could cause severe clinical manifestations with central nerve system complications even in the child older than 5 years.

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