A bioequivalence study comparing two formulations of lopinavir/ritonavir capsules

S K Tippabhotla, N R Thudi, R Raghuvanshi, A H Khuroo, S Gurule, S Mishra, T Monif, V K C Lao
International Journal of Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics 2008, 46 (4): 204-10
This investigation was carried out to evaluate the bioavailability of a new single fixed-dose combination formulation of lopinavir and ritonavir, relative to reference product, Kaletra (133.3 mg lopinavir/33.3 mg ritonavir) capsules, manufactured by Abbott Laboratories, Chicago, IL, USA. The bioavailability study was carried out on 72 healthy male and female volunteers who received a single dose of 3 capsules (133.3 mg lopinavir/33.3 mg ritonavir) of the test (T) and the reference (R) products in the fasting state, in a randomized, balanced, 2-way crossover design. After dosing, serial blood samples were collected for a period of 72 hours. Plasma harvested from blood was analyzed for lopinavir and ritonavir by a sensitive and validated simultaneous liquid-chromatographic and mass-spectrometric (LC-MS/MS) assay. Mean oral clearance (Cl/F) values of the FDC were 4.92 and 23.54 l/h for lopinavir and ritonavir, respectively, the maximum plasma concentrations (C(max)), area under the plasma concentration-time curve up to the last measurable concentration (AUC(0-t)), and to infinity (AUC(0-infinity)), were analyzed statistically under the assumption of a multiplicative model. The time to maximum concentration (t(max)) was analyzed assuming an additive model. The parametric confidence intervals (90%) were calculated by Schuirmann's two 1-sided t-test criteria. It was found that the test/reference (T/R) ratios for the pharmacokinetic parameters AUC(0-t), AUC(0-infinity) and C(max) (after initial log transformation) were well within the bioequivalence acceptance range of 80-125% as per international regulatory guidelines. Therefore, the two formulations were considered to be bioequivalent [Food and Drug Administration 2003].

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