Time course analysis of the effects of botulinum toxin type a on elbow spasticity based on biomechanic and electromyographic parameters

Hsin-Min Lee, Jia-Jin Jason Chen, Yi-Ning Wu, Yu-Lin Wang, Sheng-Chih Huang, Maria Piotrkiewicz
Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation 2008, 89 (4): 692-9

OBJECTIVE: To quantify changes of elbow spasticity over time after botulinum toxin type A (BTX-A) injection in the upper extremity of stroke patients.

DESIGN: Before-after trial in which the therapeutic effects were followed up at 2, 6, and 9 weeks after the BTX-A injection (Botox).

SETTING: Hospital.

PARTICIPANTS: Chronic stroke patients (N=8) with upper-limb spasticity.

INTERVENTION: BTX-A was injected in upper-limb muscles, including the biceps brachii.

MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Treatment effects were quantified as the changes in the velocity and the length dependence of hyperexcitable stretch reflexes. Manual sinusoid stretches of the elbow joint at 4 frequencies (1/3, 1/2, 1, 3/2Hz) over a movement range of 60 degrees were performed on patients by using a portable device. The Modified Ashworth Scale (MAS), biomechanic viscosity, and the reflexive electromyography threshold (RET) of the biceps brachii were used to evaluate the degree of hypertonia.

RESULTS: The statistical analyses of the MAS score, biomechanic viscosity, and RET revealed a significant decrease in spasticity after the injection (all P<.05). Moreover, our quantitative parameters (biomechanic viscosity, RET) revealed small changes in spasticity after the BTX-A injection that could not be observed from clinical MAS evaluations. Five of 8 subjects showed a maximal reduction in spasticity (in terms of biomechanic viscosity value) within 6 weeks after the injection, whereas it was notable that all subjects exhibited peak RET values at either 2 or 6 weeks after the injection with variable degrees of relapse of spasticity.

CONCLUSIONS: Early relapse of spasticity (within 9 weeks of the injection) can be detected from biomechanic and neurophysiologic assessments in a clinical setup. These quantitative indices provide valuable information for clinicians when making decisions to perform additional rehabilitation interventions or another BTX-A injection in the early stages of treatment.

Full Text Links

Find Full Text Links for this Article


You are not logged in. Sign Up or Log In to join the discussion.

Related Papers

Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read

Save your favorite articles in one place with a free QxMD account.


Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"