Silibinin inhibits colorectal cancer growth by inhibiting tumor cell proliferation and angiogenesis

Rana P Singh, Mallikarjuna Gu, Rajesh Agarwal
Cancer Research 2008 March 15, 68 (6): 2043-50
Herein, for the first time, we investigated in vivo efficacy and associated molecular biomarkers and mechanisms of a chemopreventive agent, silibinin, against human colorectal carcinoma (CRC) HT29 xenograft growth. Nude mice were implanted with HT29 cells and fed with vehicle (carboxymethyl cellulose or phosphatidylcholine) or 200 mg/kg/d dose of silibinin or 100 and 200 mg/kg/d doses of silybin-phytosome (5 days per week) for 32 days. Silibinin inhibited tumor growth that accounted for 48% (P = 0.002) decrease in tumor volume and 42% (P = 0.012) decrease in tumor weight at the end of the experiment without any adverse health effect. A stronger antitumor efficacy was observed with silybin-phytosome preparation. Silibinin decreased proliferation index by 40% (P < 0.001), increased apoptotic index by approximately 2-fold (P = 0.001), and reduced microvessel density by 36% (P = 0.001) in tumors. Antiproliferative and proapoptotic effects of silibinin were associated with down-regulation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2) and Akt phosphorylation as well as cyclin D1 expression. Antiangiogenic effect of silibinin was coupled with a strong decrease in inducible nitric oxide synthase (NOS) and NOS3, cyclooxygenase-1 (COX-1) and COX-2, and hypoxia-inducing factor-1 alpha (HIF-1 alpha) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). These findings suggest in vivo antitumor efficacy of silibinin against CRC involving its antiproliferative, proapoptotic, and antiangiogenic activities. The inhibition of ERK1/2 and Akt signaling may account for antiproliferative and proapoptotic effects, whereas down-regulation of NOS, COX, HIF-1 alpha, and VEGF expression could lead to antiangiogenic effect of silibinin against CRC. Overall, potential use of silibinin against human CRC could be suggested.

Full Text Links

Find Full Text Links for this Article


You are not logged in. Sign Up or Log In to join the discussion.

Related Papers

Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read

Save your favorite articles in one place with a free QxMD account.


Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"