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Current opinion on drug-induced oral reactions: a comprehensive review.

AIM: The aim of this comprehensive review is to present an update to our previous review about drug-induced oral reactions. All drugs that may cause adverse effects in the mouth and related structures are reviewed.

BACKGROUND: Every drug can produce untoward consequences even when used according to standard or recommended methods of administration. Adverse drug reactions can involve every organ and system of the body and are frequently mistaken for signs of underlying disease. The mouth and associated structures can also be affected by many drugs or chemicals. Good oral health including salivary function is very important in maintaining whole body health. Drug reactions can be categorized as to the parts of the oral complex such as the oral mucosa and tongue, periodontal tissues, dental structures, salivary glands, cleft lip and palate, muscles, and nerves.

REVIEW RESULTS: This review suggests the number of drugs and chemicals that can produce adverse or toxic reactions in the oral cavity are on the rise. An updated listing of offending drugs is provided along with current strategies for dealing with adverse reactions.

CONCLUSION: Clinicians must constantly update their knowledge of drugs used by their patients. Attention must be paid to their toxic and unwanted effects that in many cases may be similar to characteristics of common diseases.

CLINICAL SIGNIFICANCE: Dentists and specialists of oral diseases should be aware of adverse drug oral reactions for better diagnosis of oral diseases, administration of drugs, and patient compliance during drug therapy.

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