NOTCH1 up-regulation and signaling involved in Mycobacterium bovis BCG-induced SOCS3 expression in macrophages

Yeddula Narayana, Kithiganahalli Narayanaswamy Balaji
Journal of Biological Chemistry 2008 May 2, 283 (18): 12501-11
Suppressor of cytokine signaling (SOCS) 3 is a critical negative regulator of cytokine signaling and is induced by Mycobacterium bovis Bacille Calmette-Guérin (M. bovis BCG) in mouse macrophages. However, little is known about the early receptor proximal signaling mechanisms underlying mycobacteria-mediated induction of SOCS3. We demonstrate here for the first time that M. bovis BCG up-regulates NOTCH1 and activates the NOTCH1 signaling pathway, leading to the expression of SOCS3. We show that perturbing Notch signaling in infected macrophages results in the marked reduction in the expression of SOCS3. Furthermore, enforced expression of the Notch1 intracellular domain in RAW 264.7 macrophages induces the expression of SOCS3, which can be further potentiated by M. bovis BCG. The perturbation of Toll-like receptor (TLR) 2 signaling resulted in marked reduction in SOCS3 levels and expression of the NOTCH1 target gene, Hes1. The down-regulation of MyD88 resulted in a significant decrease in SOCS3 expression, implicating the role of the TLR2-MyD88 axis in M. bovis BCG-triggered signaling. However, the SOCS3 inducing ability of M. bovis BCG remains unaltered also upon infection of macrophages from TLR4-defective C3H/HeJ mice. More importantly, signaling perturbation data suggest the involvement of cross-talk among members of the phosphoinositide 3-kinase and mitogen-activated protein kinase cascades with NOTCH1 signaling in SOCS3 expression. Furthermore, SOCS3 expression requires the NOTCH1-mediated recruitment of Suppressor of Hairless (CSL) and nuclear factor-kappaB to the Socs3 promoter. Overall, these results implicate NOTCH1 signaling during inducible expression of SOCS3 following infection of macrophages with an intracellular bacillus-like M. bovis BCG.

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