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Correlation between clinical phenotypes and X-inactivation patterns in six female carriers with heterozygote vasopressin type 2 receptor gene mutations.

About 90% of patients with congenital nephrogenic diabetes insipidus (NDI) have vasopressin type 2 receptor (V2R) gene mutations that are inherited in an X-linked recessive manner. Although most female carriers are asymptomatic, some female carriers show polydipsia and polyuria. The reason why female carriers show NDI symptoms is explained by skewed X-inactivation. We studied X-inactivation patterns of six female carriers with heterozygote V2R gene mutations. The X-inactivation pattern in peripheral blood leukocytes was examined using methylation analysis of the polymorphic CAG repeat in the androgen receptor gene. Two asymptomatic female carriers showed random X-inactivation (61.9% and 60.7%). Skewed X-inactivation patterns (71.6%, 79.4%, and 91.2%) occurring preferentially to normal X alleles were recognized in three female carriers who showed clinical NDI symptoms. However, in one female carrier who showed clinical NDI symptoms, random X-inactivation (55.4%) was recognized. In conclusion, the clinical NDI phenotypes may correlate with the X-inactivation patterns in female carriers with heterozygote V2R gene mutations. However, in some female carriers, we cannot predict the clinical phenotypes by the evaluation of the X-inactivation patterns in peripheral blood leukocytes, because X-inactivation ratios within an individual are sometimes different between tissues.

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