JOURNAL ARTICLE

The effect of lung expansion and positive end-expiratory pressure on respiratory mechanics in anesthetized children

Athanasios G Kaditis, Etsuro K Motoyama, Walter Zin, Nobuhiro Maekawa, Isuta Nishio, Taiyo Imai, Joseph Milic-Emili
Anesthesia and Analgesia 2008, 106 (3): 775-85, table of contents
18292419

BACKGROUND: Imaging studies have shown that general anesthesia in children results in atelectasis. Lung recruitment total lung capacity (TLC) maneuvers plus positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) are effective in preventing atelectasis. However, physiological changes in children during general anesthesia have not been elucidated.

METHODS: In eight anesthetized and mechanically ventilated children (median age: 3.5 years; range: 2.3-6.5), we measured static respiratory system elastance (E(st)), flow resistance (R(int)), and elastance and resistance components resulting from tissue viscoelasticity (deltaE and deltaR, respectively) using the constant inflow, end-inspiratory occlusion method preceded by TLC maneuvers, both with zero PEEP (ZEEP) and PEEP (5 cm H2O) for comparison.

RESULTS: With constant inspiratory flow V(I) and ZEEP, increases in end-inspiratory lung volume above relaxation volume (tidal volume, V(T)) from 8 to 20 mL x kg(-1) resulted in decreases in E(st) from 1.06 to 0.82 cm H2O x mL(-1) x kg, deltaE from 0.16 to 0.09, and R(int) from 0.13 to 0.11 cm H2O x mL(-1) x s x kg, whereas deltaR increased from 0.08 to 0.12 (P < 0.05). Similar relationships were found with PEEP. Increases in V(I) (8 to 26 mL x s(-1) x kg) with constant V(T) and ZEEP resulted in decreases in E(st) from 1.09 to 0.9 and deltaR from 0.17 to 0.06 (P < 0.01), whereas deltaE and R(int) did not change. There was a similar flow and volume dependence of elastance and resistance with PEEP.

CONCLUSIONS: The observed steady decreases in E(st) with increasing V(T) (up to 16 mL/kg with PEEP) indicate marked reductions in end-expiratory relaxation volume (functional residual capacity) even with PEEP. Similarity in results with ZEEP and PEEP suggests that TLC-maneuvers and O2-N2 ventilation prevented airway closure throughout the study.

Full Text Links

Find Full Text Links for this Article

Discussion

You are not logged in. Sign Up or Log In to join the discussion.

Related Papers

Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read
18292419
×

Save your favorite articles in one place with a free QxMD account.

×

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"