Pattern of metalloprotease activity and myofiber regeneration in skeletal muscles of mdx mice

Cristiane Bani, Jussara Lagrota-Candido, Douglas Florindo Pinheiro, Paulo Emílio Correa Leite, Maria Cristina Salimena, Andrea Henriques-Pons, Thereza Quirico-Santos
Muscle & Nerve 2008, 37 (5): 583-92
Matrix metalloproteases (MMPs) are key regulatory molecules in the formation, remodeling, and degradation of extracellular matrix components in both physiological and pathological processes. Skeletal muscles of mdx dystrophic mice show distinct patterns of inflammation and regeneration, suggesting that factors within the microenvironment influence the adaptive responses of muscles with predominantly slow-twitch or fast-twitch fibers. This study aimed to verify the pattern of MMP activity in gastrocnemius, soleus, and diaphragm muscles and correlate it with the regenerative capability at distinct stages of the mdx myopathy. Marked inflammation and myonecrosis was associated with increased MMP-9 activity and TNF-alpha (tumor necrosis factor-alpha) production, whereas muscle regeneration, evidenced by NCAM (neural cell adhesion molecule) expression and MMP-2 activity, varied at different stages of the disease. Soleus muscles showed a high percentage of NCAM-positive myofibers in the early stages (2 weeks) of the disease, but they appeared in the gastrocnemius muscles at 12 weeks and in the diaphragm at 24 weeks. Increased MMP-2 activity in the diaphragm throughout all stages of the disease suggests important tissue remodeling, which is probably associated with persistent inflammation. The results indicate that the microenvironment of distinct skeletal muscle may influence a particular kinetic pattern of MMP activity, which ultimately favors persistent inflammation and myofiber regeneration at different stages of the myopathy in mdx mice.

Full Text Links

Find Full Text Links for this Article


You are not logged in. Sign Up or Log In to join the discussion.

Related Papers

Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"