2,4-dinitrophenol induces G1 phase arrest and apoptosis in human pulmonary adenocarcinoma Calu-6 cells

Yong Hwan Han, Sang Wook Kim, Suhn Hee Kim, Sung Zoo Kim, Woo Hyun Park
Toxicology in Vitro: An International Journal Published in Association with BIBRA 2008, 22 (3): 659-70
2,4-dinitrophenol (DNP) is an uncoupler of oxidative phosphorylation in the mitochondria. Here, we investigated the effect of DNP on the growth of Calu-6 lung cancer cells in view of cell cycle, apoptosis, ROS production and GSH content. DNP dose-dependently decreased cell viability at 72 h (EC50 of about 200 microM) as measured by a MTT assay. The lower doses of DNP induced a G1 arrest of the cell cycle in Calu-6 cells. Analysis of the cell cycle regulatory proteins demonstrated that DNP decreased the steady-state levels of cyclin proteins and cyclin dependent kinase (CDK), but increased the protein levels of cyclin dependent kinase inhibitor (CDKI) p27. DNP also caused a marked increase in apoptosis, as evidenced by DNA fragmentation (sub-G1 DNA content), DAPI staining, the loss of mitochondrial membrane potential (DeltaPsim), externalization of phosphatidylserine (PS). In addition, DNP-treated cells significantly increased the intracellular H2O2 and O2.- levels. All of caspase inhibitors could markedly rescue Calu-6 cells from DNP-induced cell death and only pan-caspase inhibitor, Z-VAD-FMK, could slightly prevent the loss of mitochondrial membrane potential (DeltaPsim). However, none of the caspase inhibitors reduced the increased H2O2 levels, but the increased O2.- levels was slightly attenuated by pan-caspase inhibitor. In addition, the depletion of GSH content in DNP-treated cells was prevented by all of caspase inhibitors. In conclusion, DNP, which induced ROS and reduced GSH content, inhibited the growth of Calu-6 cells via cell cycle arrest at G1 phase and apoptosis.

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