The role of surveillance endoscopy and endosonography after endoscopic ablation of high-grade dysplasia and carcinoma of the esophagus

A D Savoy, H C Wolfsen, M Raimondo, T A Woodward, K Noh, S Pungpapong, L L Hemminger, M B Wallace
Diseases of the Esophagus: Official Journal of the International Society for Diseases of the Esophagus 2008, 21 (2): 108-13
Barrett's esophagus (BE) with high-grade dysplasia (HGD) or early carcinoma treated with surgery or photodynamic therapy (PDT) is at risk of recurrence. The efficacy of endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) for surveillance after PDT is unknown. Our objective was to determine if EUS is superior to esophagogastroduodenoscopy (EGD) and/or CT scan for surveillance of BE neoplasia after PDT. The study was designed as a retrospective review with the setting as a tertiary referral center. Consecutive patients with BE with HGD or carcinoma in situ treated with PDT were followed with EUS, CT scan and EGD with jumbo biopsies every 1 cm at 3, 4, or 6-month intervals. Exclusion criteria was < 6 months of follow up and/or < 2 EUS procedures. Main outcome measurements were residual or recurrent disease discovered by any method. Results showed that 67/97 patients met the inclusion criteria (56 men and 11 women). Median follow-up was 16 months. Recurrent or residual adenocarcinoma (ACA) was detected in four patients during follow-up. EGD with random biopsies or targeted nodule biopsies detected three patients. EUS with endoscopic mucosal resection of the nodule confirmed T1 recurrence in one of these three. In the fourth patient, CT scan revealed perigastric lymphadenopathy and EUS-FNA (fine needle aspiration) confirmed adenocarcinoma. There were two deaths, one related to disease progression and one unrelated. The rate of recurrent/persistent ACA after PDT was 4/67 = 6%. EUS did not detect disease when EGD and CT were normal. Limitations of this study include non-blinding of results and preferential status of non-invasive imaging (CT) over EUS. Our experience suggests that EUS has little role in the surveillance of these patients, unless discrete abnormalities are found on EGD or cross-sectional imaging.

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