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The biology of hernia formation.

Abdominal wall hernias occur when tissue structure and function are lost at the load-bearing muscle, tendon, and fascial layer. The fundamental biologic mechanisms are primary fascial pathology or surgical wound failure. In both cases, cellular and extracellular molecular matrix defects occur. Primary abdominal wall hernias have been associated with extracellular matrix diseases. Incisional hernias and recurrent inguinal hernias more often involve a combination of technical and biologic limitations. Defects in wound healing and extracellular matrix synthesis contribute to the high incidence of incisional hernia formation following laparotomy.

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Group 7SearchHeart failure treatmentPapersTopicsCollectionsEffects of Sodium-Glucose Cotransporter 2 Inhibitors for the Treatment of Patients With Heart Failure Importance: Only 1 class of glucose-lowering agents-sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors-has been reported to decrease the risk of cardiovascular events primarily by reducingSeptember 1, 2017: JAMA CardiologyAssociations of albuminuria in patients with chronic heart failure: findings in the ALiskiren Observation of heart Failure Treatment study.CONCLUSIONS: Increased UACR is common in patients with heart failure, including non-diabetics. Urinary albumin creatininineJul, 2011: European Journal of Heart FailureRandomized Controlled TrialEffects of Liraglutide on Clinical Stability Among Patients With Advanced Heart Failure and Reduced Ejection Fraction: A Randomized Clinical Trial.Review

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