JOURNAL ARTICLE

Negative reinforcement/negative affect reduction cigarette smoking outcome expectancies: incremental validity for anxiety focused on bodily sensations and panic attack symptoms among daily smokers

Michael J Zvolensky, Adam Gonzalez, Marcel O Bonn-Miller, Amit Bernstein, Renee D Goodwin
Experimental and Clinical Psychopharmacology 2008, 16 (1): 66-76
18266553
The present investigation evaluated the incremental validity of negative reinforcement/negative affect reduction smoking outcome expectancies in the prediction of anxious and fearful responding to bodily sensations. Participants included 171 daily smokers (82 women, 89 men; mean age = 25.67 years, SD = 10.54). Consistent with prediction, negative reinforcement/negative affect reduction smoking outcome expectancies were significantly predictive of anxiety focused on bodily sensations and postchallenge intensity of cognitive panic attack symptoms, but not of physical panic symptoms. The observed effects were evident above and beyond the statistically significant variance accounted for by the covariates of anxiety sensitivity, negative affectivity, cigarettes per day, and weekly alcohol use and independent of other smoking outcome expectancy factors. Findings are discussed in terms of the role of negative reinforcement/negative affect reduction smoking outcome expectancies and vulnerability for panic symptoms and psychopathology.

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