[Case of bladder tuberculosis with onset at the age of nineteen—treatment of urinary tract tuberculosis in accordance with the new Japanese Tuberculosis Treatment Guidelines]

Takuji Kaneko, Shigetaka Kudoh, Nozomi Matsushita, Yuki Kashiwabara, Takeshi Tamura, Ikuhiko Yoshida, Kunio Nomura
Nihon Hinyōkika Gakkai Zasshi. the Japanese Journal of Urology 2008, 99 (1): 29-34
A 24-year-old man experienced gross haematuria and dysuria several times a year from the age of 19, presenting to this Department for the first time at age 21, when he was given standard antibiotic treatment for acute cystitis. Although urinary symptoms persisted, he failed to attend for follow-up. He attended another clinic at the age of 24 with increased urinary frequency. Transrectal ultrasonography revealed thickening of the bladder wall, concavity of the right bladder neck, and nodular changes extending from the left bladder neck to the left bladder wall, so he was referred to this department for further investigation. Mycobacterium tuberculosis was detected in the urine by the referring doctor, so the diagnosis was made of bladder tuberculosis (TB). We treated him with rifampicin (RFP), isoniazid (INH) and pyrazinamide (PZA) triple therapy for 2 months, followed by RFP and INH dual therapy for 4 months. His urinary frequency improved markedly after one month, and his bladder capacity was 420 ml after 4 months of treatment. After 2 and half year follow-up he remains well without any signs of relapse. To our knowledge, this is only the ninth case of teenage onset of urinary tract TB in Japan since 1995. As specified in Clause 22 of the Enforcement Regulations of the Tuberculosis Control Law, chemotherapy and surgical treatment of TB, the mainstays of treatment, should be administered in accordance with the 'Standards for the Treatment of Tuberculosis', issued by the Japanese Minister of Health and revised in 2004. The level of recognition of the 'Standards for the Treatment of Tuberculosis' is low, however. Although the incidence of TB of the urinary tract has dropped dramatically, as urologists we must be aware that treatment of this condition must be given in accordance with the Standards.

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