JOURNAL ARTICLE

Association between chronic kidney disease and carotid intima-media thickening in individuals with hypertension and impaired glucose metabolism

Nobukazu Ishizaka, Yuko Ishizaka, Ei-Ichi Toda, Kazuhiko Koike, George Seki, Ryozo Nagai, Minoru Yamakado
Hypertension Research: Official Journal of the Japanese Society of Hypertension 2007, 30 (11): 1035-41
18250552
We investigated whether chronic kidney disease (CKD) was associated with carotid intima-media thickening in 1,351 male individuals undergoing general health screening. Glomerular filtration rate (GFR) was estimated by the Modification of Diet in Renal Disease equations using 0.881 as a coefficient for Japanese, and low estimated GFR (eGFR) was defined as an eGFR value of <60 mL/min/1.73 m(2). Albuminuria was defined as a urine albumin-to-urine creatinine ratio of >or=30 mg/g, and CKD was defined when low eGFR and/or albuminuria was present. After adjusting for age, CKD was associated with carotid intima-media thickening with an odds ratio of 1.47 (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.05-2.06, p=0.0024). After adjusting for age, fasting plasma glucose, and smoking status, both albuminuria and low eGFR were significantly associated with intima-media thickening in individuals with hypertension with an odds ratio of 1.85 (95% CI 1.13-3.03, p=0.015) and 1.79 (95% CI 1.09-2.94, p=0.022), respectively. On the other hand, neither of them was associated with carotid intima-media thickening in individuals without hypertension. Similarly, after adjusting for age, systolic blood pressure, and smoking status, both albuminuria and low eGFR were significantly associated with intima-media thickening in individuals with high fasting glucose (defined as fasting plasma glucose levels of >or=110 mg/dL or current use of anti-diabetic medication), but not in those without. Our data indicate that CKD or its components (low eGFR and albuminuria) may be associated with early carotid atherosclerosis in low-risk individuals, such as those undergoing general health screening, who have hypertension and/or impaired glucose metabolism.

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