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Short-term outcomes for super-super obese (BMI > or =60 kg/m2) patients undergoing weight loss surgery at a high-volume bariatric surgery center: laparoscopic adjustable gastric banding, laparoscopic gastric bypass, and open tubular gastric bypass

Daniel J Stephens, John K Saunders, Scott Belsley, Amit Trivedi, Douglas R Ewing, Vincent Iannace, Rafael F Capella, Annette Wasielewski, S Moran, Hans J Schmidt, Garth H Ballantyne
Surgery for Obesity and Related Diseases 2008, 4 (3): 408-15
18243060

BACKGROUND: We previously reported significantly longer operating room times and a trend toward increased complications and mortality in the super-super obese (body mass index [BMI] > or =60 kg/m(2)) early in our experience with laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass. The goal of this study was to re-examine the short-term outcomes for super-super obese patients undergoing weight loss surgery at our high-volume bariatric surgery center well beyond our learning curve.

METHODS: The records for all patients who had undergone weight loss surgery at Hackensack University Medical Center from 2002 to June 2006 were harvested from the hospital's electronic medical database. This population was analyzed as 2 groups (those with a BMI <60 kg/m(2) and those with a BMI > or =60 kg/m(2)), as well as by type of operation. Step-wise and univariate logistic regression analyses assessed the effect of BMI on the outcome variables, including mortality, length of surgery, length of hospital stay, and disposition at discharge.

RESULTS: A total of 3692 patients were studied. Of these patients, 3401 had a BMI <60 kg/m(2) and 291 had a BMI > or =60 kg/m(2). Of the 291 super-super obese patients, 130 underwent vertical banded gastroplasty-Roux-en-Y gastric bypass, 116 laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass, and 45 laparoscopic adjustable gastric banding. The proportion of male patients, black patients, and patients with sleep apnea was increased in the BMI > or =60 kg/m(2) group. The number of co-morbid diseases per patient correlated with age but not BMI. The BMI > or =60 kg/m(2) group required a significantly longer total operating room time (136 versus 120 min). Hospital length of stay was significantly longer only in the laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass patients (3 d for the BMI > or =60 kg/m(2) group versus 2 d for the BMI <60 kg/m(2) group). A significantly greater percentage of patients in the super-super obese group were discharged to chronic care facilities. The overall in-hospital mortality rate was 0.15% (5 of 3692) but did not significantly differ between the 2 groups: BMI <60 kg/m(2), rate of 0.12% (4 of 3401 patients), and BMI > or =60 kg/m(2), rate of 0.34% (1 of 291 patients). The type of operation did not significantly affect the disposition at discharge or in-hospital mortality.

CONCLUSION: Super-super obese patients required longer total operating room times, a longer hospital length of stay, and were more likely to be discharged to chronic care facilities than were patients with a BMI <60 kg/m(2); however, the in-hospital mortality was similar for both groups.

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