Association of first-trimester thyroid function test values with thyroperoxidase antibody status, smoking, and multivitamin use

Elizabeth N Pearce, Emily Oken, Matthew W Gillman, Stephanie L Lee, Barbarajean Magnani, Deborah Platek, Lewis E Braverman
Endocrine Practice 2008, 14 (1): 33-9

OBJECTIVE: To determine first-trimester thyroid function values and associations with thyroperoxidase antibody (TPO-Ab) status, smoking, emesis, and iodine-containing multivitamin use.

METHODS: We collected information by interview, questionnaire, and blood draw at the initial obstetric visit in 668 pregnant women without known thyroid disease. We compared thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), total thyroxine (T4), and free T4 index (FT4I) values by TPO-Ab status. Multiple regression was used to identify characteristics associated with thyroid function values.

RESULTS: The following median (range containing 95% of the data points) thyroid function test values were obtained in 585 TPO-Ab-negative women: TSH, 1.1 mIU/L (0.04-3.6); FT4I, 2.1 (1.5-2.9); and T4, 9.9 microg/dL (7.0-14.0). The following median (range containing 95% of the data points) thyroid function test values were obtained in 83 TPO-Ab-positive women: TSH, 1.8 mIU/L (0.3-6.4) (P<.001); FT4I, 2.0 (1.4-2.7) (P = .06); and T4, 9.3 microg/dL (6.8-13.0) (P = .03) (P values denote statistically significant differences between TPO-Ab-positive and negative participants). Among TPO-Ab-negative participants, TSH level was not associated with use of iodine-containing multivitamins, smoking, or race. TSH increased 0.03 mIU/L for every year of maternal age (P = .03) and decreased by 0.3 mIU/L for every increase in parity (P<.001). T4 decreased 0.04 microg/dL for every year of maternal age (P = .04). Mean FT4I was 2.05 in smokers and 2.20 in nonsmokers (P<.01). There were no relationships between T4 or FT4I and parity, race, or iodine-containing multivitamin use.

CONCLUSION: TPO-Ab status of pregnant women should be considered when constructing trimester-specific reference ranges because elevated serum TPO-Ab levels are associated with higher TSH and lower T4 values.

Full Text Links

Find Full Text Links for this Article


You are not logged in. Sign Up or Log In to join the discussion.

Related Papers

Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read

Save your favorite articles in one place with a free QxMD account.


Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"