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Transcatheter closure of congenital ventricular septal defects in adult: mid-term results and complications.

INTRODUCTION: Transcatheter treatment of congenital heart defects in adult patients is dramatically changing the way in which this population is being treated. This report outlines mid-term follow-up results and complications in adult patients that underwent transcatheter VSD closure.

METHODS: The data of 40 adult patients who underwent transcatheter closure of a VSD at our institution were collected prospectively between January 2000 and June 2006. The inclusion criteria for this study were clinical and/or echocardiographic evidence of a significant left-to-right shunt through a muscular VSD (mVSD) or a perimembranous VSD (pVSD). A shunt was considered significant when the following were found: (i) left atrial enlargement, defined as a left atrial-to-aortic ratio >1.5; (ii) left ventricular enlargement (left ventricular overload), defined as a left ventricular end-diastolic diameter >+2 standard deviation (SD) above the mean for the patient's age. Another inclusion criterion was a previous episode of endocarditis.

RESULTS: 41 procedures were carried out in 40 patients; a mVSD-O was used in 22 patients and a pVSD-O in 18 patients (1 patient had two devices inserted). No deaths occurred; no procedure was aborted. A total of 6 (14.6%) complications occurred. The most frequent complication was a rhythm abnormality (n=4). No device embolization occurred. The median follow-up duration was 36 months (range: 6-81 months). No deaths or cases of endocarditis occurred. One patient who had two devices implanted because of a residual defect after a tetralogy of Fallot repair, had to be operated again 3 months after the second device implantation because of a persistent significant residual leak.

CONCLUSIONS: Greater experience, possibly of multicentre trials and long-term follow-up are required to better assess the safety and effectiveness of this procedure as an alternative to surgical approaches in adult patients.

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