Ectopic pregnancy—an analysis of 180 cases

Arup Kumar Majhi, Nilotpal Roy, Kakali Sinha Karmakar, Pradip Kumar Banerjee
Journal of the Indian Medical Association 2007, 105 (6): 308, 310, 312 passim
Ectopic pregnancy is the most life threatening emergency in pregnancy. Increase in incidence and impairment in fertility are now the real concerns. The aim of this study was to estimate the epidemiological, diagnostic and therapeutic aspects of ectopic pregnancy with a view to suggest action to improve the prognosis. This was a prospective study carried out at NRS Medical College, Kolkata, among consecutive 180 patients of ectopic pregnancy admitted from January, 2002 to December, 2004. During this period the incidence of ectopic pregnancy was 1 in 161(0.6%). The peak age of incidence was 26-30 years; primi were the most sufferers. There were 65.0% patients was had identifiable risk factors. Tubectomy (14.4%), history of abortion (26.1%), infertility (12.2%), pelvic inflammatory diseases (12.8%) and history of previous surgery (11.1%) were the important risk factors. Amenorrhoea (76.1%), abdominal pain (86.1%) and vaginal bleeding (42.2%) were the frequent presenting complaints. There were 87.8% patients was had pallor, 9.4% were admitted with features of shock. Cervical motion tenderness (82.2%) was the most frequent sign. Urinary beta-hCG was positive in 96.1% cases. Ultrasonography revealed diagnosis in 2/3rds cases among 129 patients. Culdocentesis evoked the diagnosis in 73.3% cases out of 135 patients. In 95.0% cases it was of tubal variety, 70.2% ruptured, 19.9% tubal abortion and 9.9% unruptured. Surgery by open method in the form of salpingectomy (81.9%), salpingo-oophorectomy (9.3%) and salpingostomy (5.3%) were the mainstay of management. Expectant management and medical therapy can be offered only in 1.2% and 1.75% respectively. There was no case fatality. By reducing and identifying the risk factors and 'catching' the patients at the earliest it is possible to improve the prognosis so far as morbidity, mortality and fertility are concerned.

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