Geometry of the proximal isovelocity surface area in mitral regurgitation by 3-dimensional color Doppler echocardiography: difference between functional mitral regurgitation and prolapse regurgitation

Yoshiki Matsumura, Shota Fukuda, Hung Tran, Neil L Greenberg, Deborah A Agler, Nozomi Wada, Manatomo Toyono, James D Thomas, Takahiro Shiota
American Heart Journal 2008, 155 (2): 231-8

BACKGROUND: The geometry of the proximal isovelocity surface area (PISA) of functional mitral regurgitation (MR), which is conventionally assumed to be a hemisphere, remains to be clarified. We investigated the 3-dimensional (3D) geometry of PISA of functional MR as opposed to that of MR due to mitral valve prolapse (MVP) by real-time 3D echocardiography with color Doppler capability.

METHODS: Twenty-seven patients with functional MR and 27 patients with MVP were examined. The horizontal PISA length in the commissure-commissure plane and each PISA radius in 3 anteroposterior planes (medial, central, and lateral) were measured by real-time 3D echocardiography with 3D software. The effective regurgitant orifice (ERO) area was calculated with the maximum PISA radius and compared to that by 2D quantitative Doppler method.

RESULTS: En-face 3D color Doppler images showed an elongated and slightly curved PISA geometry along the leaflet coaptation in functional MR, whereas the geometry was rounder in MVP. The PISA horizontal length in functional MR was longer than that in MVP (2.3 +/- 0.4 vs 1.2 +/- 0.2 cm, P < .001). The PISA method with the maximum radius underestimated the ERO area by 2D quantitative Doppler method (by 24%) in functional MR, but not in MVP.

CONCLUSIONS: The geometry of PISA in functional MR was elongated, distinctly different from the more focal pathology of MVP, leading to underestimation of the ERO area by PISA method.

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