Beta2-adrenergic receptor regulates Toll-like receptor-4-induced nuclear factor-kappaB activation through beta-arrestin 2

Takako Kizaki, Tetsuya Izawa, Takuya Sakurai, Shukoh Haga, Naoyuki Taniguchi, Hisao Tajiri, Kenji Watanabe, Noorbibi K Day, Kenji Toba, Hideki Ohno
Immunology 2008, 124 (3): 348-56
Toll-like receptors (TLRs) play an important role in innate immunity while, beta(2)-adrenergic receptors (beta(2)AR) provide the key linkages for the sympathetic nervous system to regulate the immune system. However, their role in macrophages remains uncertain. Here, we demonstrate the cross-talk between beta(2)AR and TLR signalling pathways. Expression of beta(2)AR was down-regulated by TLR4 ligand lipopolysaccharide (LPS) stimulation. To investigate the physiological consequence of this down-regulation RAW264 cells, a macrophage cell line, were transfected with a beta(2)AR expression vector (RAWar). Both LPS-stimulated inducible nitric oxide synthase (NOS II) expression and NO production were markedly suppressed in the RAWar cells. The activation of nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB) and degradation of the inhibitor of NF-kappaB (IkappaBalpha) in response to LPS were markedly decreased in these cells. The level of beta-arrestin 2, which regulates beta(2)AR signalling, was also reduced in RAW264 cells after stimulation with LPS, but not in RAWar cells. Overexpression of beta-arrestin 2 (RAWarr2) also inhibited NO production and NOS II expression. Furthermore, we demonstrated that beta-arrestin 2 interacted with cytosolic IkappaBalpha and that the level of IkappaBalpha coimmunoprecipitated by anti-beta-arrestin 2 antibodies was decreased in the RAW264 cells but not in RAWar or RAWarr2 cells. These findings suggest that LPS-stimulated signals suppress beta(2)AR expression, leading to down-regulation of beta-arrestin 2 expression, which stabilizes cytosolic IkappaBalpha and inhibits the NF-kappaB activation essential for NOS II expression, probably to ensure rapid and sufficient production of NO in response to microbial attack.

Full Text Links

Find Full Text Links for this Article


You are not logged in. Sign Up or Log In to join the discussion.

Trending Papers

Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read

Save your favorite articles in one place with a free QxMD account.


Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"