Inhibition of N-(4-hydroxyphenyl)retinamide-induced autophagy at a lower dose enhances cell death in malignant glioma cells

Meenakshi Tiwari, Virendra Kumar Bajpai, Amogh Anant Sahasrabuddhe, Ashok Kumar, Rohit Anthony Sinha, Sanjay Behari, Madan Madhav Godbole
Carcinogenesis 2008, 29 (3): 600-9
The question whether chemotherapy-induced autophagy is causative to the demise of the cells or a part of the survival mechanism activated during cellular distress is unclear. Others and we have previously demonstrated apoptosis-inducing capacity of N-(4-hydroxyphenyl)retinamide (4-HPR) in malignant glioma cells. We provide evidences of 4-HPR-induced autophagy at a lower concentration (5 microM). Suboptimal dose of 4-HPR treatment of malignant glioma cell lines increased G(2)/M arrest, whereas cell accumulated in S phase at a higher concentration. 4-HPR-induced autophagy was associated with acidic vacuole [acidic vesicular organelle (AVO)] formation and recruitment of microtubule-associated protein light chain 3 (LC3). At a higher concentration of 10 microM of 4-HPR, glioma cells undergoing apoptosis manifested autophagic features indicated by autophagosome formation, AVO development and LC3 localization. Autophagy inhibition at an early stage by 3-methyl adenine inhibited the AVO formation and LC3 localization with an enhancement in cell death. Bafilomycin A1, a specific inhibitor of vacuolar type Hthorn-ATPase also prevented AVO formation without effecting LC-3 localization pattern and also enhanced the extent of 4-HPR-induced cell death. 4-HPR activated c-jun and P38(MAPK) at both 5 and 10 microM concentrations, whereas increased activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 and NF-kappaB was seen only at lower dose. Inhibiting phosphoinositide 3-kinase and mitogen-activated protein kinases pathways modulated 4-HPR-induced cell death. This is the first report that provides evidences that besides apoptosis induction 4-HPR can also induce autophagy. These results indicate that 4-HPR-induced autophagy in glioma cell may provide survival advantage and inhibition of autophagy may enhance the cytotoxicity to 4-HPR.

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