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Effect of low doses of Aspergillus niger phytase on growth performance, bone strength, and nutrient absorption and excretion by growing and finishing swine fed corn-soybean meal diets deficient in available phosphorus and calcium

T L Veum, M R Ellersieck
Journal of Animal Science 2008, 86 (4): 858-70
18156343
Two experiments were conducted to evaluate the efficacy of low doses of Aspergillus niger (AN) phytase for growing and finishing pigs fed corn-soybean meal (SBM) diets with narrow Ca:P ratios that were about 0.9 g/kg deficient in available P and Ca. Experiment 1 utilized 120 pigs with an early finisher period from 51.5 +/- 0.2 to 89.7 +/- 0.9 kg of BW and a late finisher period that ended at 122.5 +/- 2.0 kg of BW. During each period, treatments were the low-P diets with 0, 150, 300, or 450 units (U) of AN phytase added/kg of diet, and a positive control (PC) diet. There were linear increases (P < or = 0.001) in bone strength and ash weight, the absorption of P (g/d and %) and Ca (%), and overall ADG (P = 0.01) with increasing concentration of AN phytase. Pigs fed the diets with 150, 300, or 450 U of AN phytase/kg did not differ from pigs fed the PC diet in growth performance overall, and pigs fed the diets with 300 or 450 U of AN phytase did not differ in P and Ca absorption (g/d) or bone ash weight from pigs fed the PC diet. However, only pigs fed the diet with 450 U of AN phytase/kg had bone strength similar to that of pigs fed the PC diet. Experiment 2 utilized 120 pigs in a grower phase from 25.3 +/- 0.1 to 57.8 +/- 0.8 kg of BW and a finisher phase that ended at 107.6 +/- 1.0 kg of BW. Treatments were the low-P diet with AN phytase added at 300, 500, or 700 U/kg of grower diet, and 150, 250, or 350 U/kg of finisher diet, respectively, resulting in treatments AN300/150, AN500/250, and AN700/350. Growth performance and the absorption (g/d) of P and Ca for the grower and finisher phases were not different for pigs fed the diets containing AN phytase and pigs fed the PC diets. However, pigs fed the PC diets excreted more fecal P (g/d, P < or = 0.01) during the grower and more P and Ca (g/d, P < 0.001) during the finisher phases than the pigs fed the diets with phytase. There were linear increases (P < or = 0.05) in bone strength and bone ash weight with increasing concentration of AN phytase. However, pigs fed the PC diets had a greater bone strength and bone ash weight than pigs fed diets AN300/150, AN500/250 (P < or = 0.02), or AN700/350 (P < or = 0.08). There were no treatment responses for N or DM digestibility in either experiment. Phytase supplementation reduced fecal P excretion from 16 to 38% and fecal Ca excretion from 21 to 42% in these experiments. In conclusion, 450 U of AN phytase/kg was effective in replacing 0.9 g of the inorganic P/kg of corn-SBM diet for finishing swine based on bone strength, whereas 300 or 150 U of AN phytase/kg of diet maintained growth performance of grower or finisher pigs, respectively.

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