JOURNAL ARTICLE
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Pattern of ocular trauma in Egypt.

PURPOSE: To review the epidemiology of serious ocular trauma presenting to Kasr El Aini Hospital, Cairo University.

METHODS: This is a prospective epidemiological and clinical study of ocular trauma patients admitted to Kasr El Aini hospital during a 6-month period; January-June 2000. Cases were analyzed with respect to: (1) demographics, (2) time, place and nature of trauma, (3) type of injury, (4) time to receive care, and (5) management and visual outcomes following primary repair.

RESULTS: One hundred and fifty three eyes of 147 patients (six bilateral injuries) sustaining serious ocular injury requiring hospitalization were included during the study period. Eighty percent of ocular trauma occurred in men (P < 0.001 chi-square test) with an average age of 22 years (ranging from 2 months to 76 years). There were 123 (80.4%) open globe injuries and 30 (19.6%) closed globe injuries. Of the open globe injuries, 48 eyes (31.4% of all eyes) were ruptured globes and 75 eyes (49% of all eyes) were lacerated globes (37 intraocular foreign bodies, 35 penetrating injuries and three perforating injuries, that is 24%, 23%, and 2% respectively of all injured eyes). Of the closed globe injuries, 5.9% had hyphema (33% of all patients), 4% lamellar lacerations, and 2.5% vitreous hemorrhage with retinal detachment. Most of the injuries occurred (39.5%) and presented (36.7%) between 12:00-5:59 PM: . Eighteen patients (12%) presented after 24 hours, and nine patients (6%) 1 week after the time of trauma. Presenting visual acuity in 123 patients (123 eyes) was as follows: 98 (80%), ten (8%) and 15 (12%) patients had poor, moderate and good visual acuity respectively. Ten eyes developed posttraumatic endophthalmitis (8% of open globe injuries). On leaving the hospital, 77.1% eyes had a visual acuity of less then 1/60 (poor), 3.9% were between 1/60 and 6/60 (moderate), and 19% were 6/36 and/or better (good). Fifty-two (35%) patients were lost in follow-up: at 1 month, 60%, 7% and 33% of the rest had poor, moderate and good visual acuity respectively.

CONCLUSION: The majority of ocular trauma in our population was due to assaultive injuries occurring mainly in males. Open globe injuries were more common than closed globe injuries, and globe lacerations were more common than ruptured globes. Open globe injuries, especially ruptured globes, had the worst visual outcomes. The initial visual acuity correlated well with the final visual acuity. Immediate and comprehensive medical care is mandatory for ocular trauma patients. Educating the public is essential if we wish to prevent eye injuries.

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