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Major complications and associated risk factors of transrectal ultrasound guided prostate needle biopsy: a retrospective study of 1875 cases in taiwan.

BACKGROUND/PURPOSE: Complications from transrectal ultrasound (TRUS) guided prostate needle biopsy are occasionally encountered in the daily practice of urologists. We tried to determine the associated risk factors of patients who suffered from major complications that required hospitalization after TRUS guided prostate needle biopsies.

METHODS: We did a retrospective review of 1875 TRUS guided prostate biopsies performed between January 2002 and December 2005. We defined major complications as patients with complications that needed hospitalization. We analyzed the association between biopsy complications and suspected factors, including age, prostate volume, patients underlying disease, selection of prophylactic antibiotics, biopsy core numbers (6, 12, and 15 cores), and antiplatelet/anticoagulant usage.

RESULTS: There were 124 patients (6.6%) with major complication. These major complications were categorized as acute prostatitis (3.8%), acute urinary retention (2.1%), hematuria (1.9%), rectal bleeding (0.2%), epididymitis (0.2%), sepsis (0.05%), and vasovagal syncope (0.05%). Patients with larger prostate size were noted to have higher risk of developing transient acute prostatitis and acute urinary retention after prostate biopsy. In contrast, age, prophylactic antibiotics (levofloxacin and pipemidic acid), underlying diseases (diabetic mellitus, hypertension, hyperlipidemia, cerebrovascular accident, coronary artery disease), increased biopsy core numbers, and antiplatelet/anticoagulant usage were not associated with major complications after prostate biopsy.

CONCLUSION: TRUS guided prostate needle biopsy is a safe diagnostic tool in most elderly males with or without systemic underlying disease.

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