Low birth weight increases risk for end-stage renal disease

Bjørn Egil Vikse, Lorentz M Irgens, Torbjørn Leivestad, Stein Hallan, Bjarne M Iversen
Journal of the American Society of Nephrology: JASN 2008, 19 (1): 151-7
Case-control studies have shown an association between low birth weight and risk for renal failure. The Medical Birth Registry of Norway, which comprises data on all births in Norway since 1967, and the Norwegian Renal Registry, which comprises data on all patients who have developed ESRD in Norway since 1980, were used to examine whether birth-related variables were associated with risk for ESRD. Of the 2,183,317 children born between 1967 and 2004, 526 were found in the ESRD registry. Compared with birth weight in the 10th to 90th percentiles, births <10th percentile had a relative risk (RR) for ESRD of 1.7 (95% confidence interval 1.4 to 2.2; P < 0.001). Births with a weight for gestational age <10th percentile had an RR of 1.5 (95% confidence interval 1.2 to 1.9; P = 0.002). These associations were virtually identical after adjustment for birth-related confounders such as congenital malformations, multiple delivery, maternal age at birth, and maternal preeclampsia. Low birth weight was more strongly associated with development of ESRD during the first 14 years of life than after age 15. Low birth weight and low birth weight for gestational age were similarly associated with multiple causes of ESRD. In conclusion, in this cohort study with a maximum follow-up of 38 years, low birth weight and intrauterine growth restriction were associated with increased risk for ESRD.

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