Coffee consumption and risk of cardiovascular events after acute myocardial infarction: results from the GISSI (Gruppo Italiano per lo Studio della Sopravvivenza nell'Infarto miocardico)-Prevenzione trial

Maria Giuseppina Silletta, RosaMaria Marfisi, Giacomo Levantesi, Alessandro Boccanelli, Carmelo Chieffo, MariaGrazia Franzosi, Enrico Geraci, Aldo Pietro Maggioni, Gianluigi Nicolosi, Carlo Schweiger, Luigi Tavazzi, Gianni Tognoni, Roberto Marchioli
Circulation 2007 December 18, 116 (25): 2944-51

BACKGROUND: The relation between coffee consumption and cardiovascular disease has been studied extensively, but results are still debated. In addition, little evidence is available on patients with established coronary heart disease.

METHODS AND RESULTS: Prospectively ascertained information among 11,231 Italian patients (9584 males and 1647 females) with recent (< or = 3 months) myocardial infarction enrolled in the GISSI (Gruppo Italiano per lo Studio della Sopravvivenza nell'Infarto miocardico)-Prevenzione trial was used. Usual dietary habits were assessed at baseline and updated at 0.5 and 1.5 years. Coffee consumption was categorized as never/almost never, < 2 cups per day, 2 to 4 cups per day, and > 4 cups per day. Medication use and fasting glucose were assessed at 0.5, 1, 1.5, 2.5, and 3.5 years. Risk was evaluated with Cox proportional hazards with time-varying covariates. The main outcome measure was the cumulative incidence of cardiovascular events (cardiovascular death, nonfatal myocardial infarction, and nonfatal stroke). A total of 1167 cardiovascular events occurred during 36,961 person-years of follow-up. After multivariable adjustment for potential confounders in the time-dependent analysis, the relative risk of cardiovascular events across categories of coffee consumption was 1.02 (95% CI 0.87 to 1.20) for < 2 cups per day, 0.91 (95% CI 0.75 to 1.09) for 2 to 4 cups per day, and 0.88 (95% CI 0.64 to 1.20) for > 4 cups per day compared with abstainers (P for trend=0.18). Ultimately, coffee consumption did not change the risk of coronary heart disease events, stroke, and sudden death.

CONCLUSIONS: No association between moderate coffee intake and cardiovascular events was observed in post-myocardial infarction patients.

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