Skin autofluorescence: a tool to identify type 2 diabetic patients at risk for developing microvascular complications

Esther G Gerrits, Helen L Lutgers, Nanne Kleefstra, Reindert Graaff, Klaas H Groenier, Andries J Smit, Rijk O Gans, Henk J Bilo
Diabetes Care 2008, 31 (3): 517-21

OBJECTIVE: Skin autofluorescence is a noninvasive measure of the level of tissue accumulation of advanced glycation end products, representing cumulative glycemic and oxidative stress. Recent studies have already shown a relationship between skin autofluorescence and diabetes complications, as well as the predictive value of skin autofluorescence for total and cardiovascular mortality in type 2 diabetes. Our aim was to investigate the predictive value of skin autofluorescence for the development of microvascular complications in type 2 diabetes.

RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: At baseline, skin autofluorescence of 973 type 2 diabetic patients with well-controlled diabetes was noninvasively measured with an autofluorescence reader. The aggregate clinical outcome was defined as the development of any diabetes-associated microvascular complication of 881 surviving patients, which was assessed at baseline and at the end of follow-up. Single end points were the development of diabetes-associated retinopathy, neuropathy, and (micro)albuminuria.

RESULTS: After a mean follow-up period of 3.1 years, baseline skin autofluorescence was significantly higher in patients who developed any microvascular complication, neuropathy, or (micro)albuminuria but not in those who developed retinopathy. Multivariate analyses showed skin autofluorescence as a predictor for development of any microvascular complication along with A1C, for development of neuropathy along with smoking, and for development of (micro)albuminuria together with sex, A1C, and diabetes duration. Skin autofluorescence did not have predictive value for the development of retinopathy, albeit diabetes duration did.

CONCLUSIONS: Our study is the first observation of skin autofluorescence measurement as an independent predictor of development of microvascular complications in type 2 diabetes.

Full Text Links

Find Full Text Links for this Article


You are not logged in. Sign Up or Log In to join the discussion.

Related Papers

Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read

Save your favorite articles in one place with a free QxMD account.


Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"