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Accommodative esotropia following surgical treatment of infantile esotropia: frequency and risk factors.

PURPOSE: We aimed to examine the frequency of and risk factors for the development of accommodative esotropia following surgical treatment for infantile esotropia.

METHODS: A total of 29 children were recruited. Potential risk factors for the development of accommodative esotropia included: sex; angle of deviation at initial and final visits; cycloplegic refractive error at initial and final visits; increase in hyperopia; amblyopia; amblyopia treatment; age at surgical treatment; pre- and postoperative latent nystagmus; dissociated vertical deviation or inferior oblique muscle overaction; additional surgical procedures; unstable alignment, and binocular sensory status.

RESULTS: Overall, 14 (48.2%) of 29 children developed accommodative esotropia during the 36- to 132-month postoperative follow-up period. Twelve (85.7%) of the 14 patients developed refractive accommodative esotropia and two developed non-refractive accommodative esotropia. The onset of accommodative esotropia occurred at a mean of 8.8 months (range 6-24 months) after the initial surgical alignment. This corresponded to a mean age of onset for accommodative esotropia of 43.2 months. We determined that, among children with infantile esotropia, those who had hyperopia of > or = 3.0 D and increasing hyperopia after surgery and those who did not develop dissociated vertical deviation during the follow-up period were more likely to develop accommodative esotropia.

CONCLUSIONS: Children who have the established risk factors should be followed closely for the development of accommodative esotropia. The treatment of these children with appropriate glasses may prevent the development of adverse effects of accommodative esotropia on sensory and motor functions.

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