Journal Article
Multicenter Study
Randomized Controlled Trial
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
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Effect of pramlintide as an adjunct to basal insulin on markers of cardiovascular risk in patients with type 2 diabetes.

OBJECTIVE: Intensification of insulin therapy in patients with type 2 diabetes, while improving glycemic control, often leads to an increase in body weight and other markers of cardiovascular risk. The effects of pramlintide as an adjunct to basal insulin titration (without mealtime insulin) on glycemia and cardiovascular risk markers were examined.

RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: This was a post hoc analysis of a 16-week, double-blind, placebo-controlled study in patients with type 2 diabetes (N = 211) using insulin glargine (without mealtime insulin) +/- oral agents. Patients were randomized to treatment with placebo or pramlintide (60 or 120 mug with major meals), and insulin glargine was titrated to target a fasting plasma glucose concentration of > or = 70 to < 100 mg/dL.

MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Endpoints included the change from baseline to Week 16 in body weight, high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP), triglycerides, HDL, LDL, and blood pressure.

RESULTS: Pramlintide-treated patients lost weight and placebo-treated patients gained weight during 16 weeks of treatment (-1.6 +/- 0.3 kg vs. +0.7 +/- 0.3 kg, p < 0.001; mean +/- SE). hsCRP was reduced in pramlintide-treated versus placebo-treated patients (-0.8 +/- 0.2 mg/L vs. 0.1 +/- 0.2 mg/L, p < 0.01; mean +/- SE). Patients with baseline hsCRP > 3 mg/L (high cardiovascular risk) demonstrated greater hsCRP reductions with pramlintide versus placebo treatment at Week 16 (p < 0.05). Patients with baseline triglycerides > or = 150 mg/dL or > or = 200 mg/dL (high cardiovascular risk) showed significant reductions from baseline in triglyceride concentrations with pramlintide (-43 +/- 14 mg/dL or -59 +/- 19 mg/dL; p < 0.05; mean +/- SE) but not with placebo (1 +/- 29 mg/dL or -3 +/- 54 mg/dL; mean +/- SE). No significant differences between pramlintide and placebo were observed for changes in HDL, LDL, or blood pressure. Pramlintide treatment was generally well tolerated. The most frequent adverse event related to pramlintide was mild-to-moderate nausea (31% pramlintide vs. 10% placebo). Pramlintide added to basal insulin did not increase the incidence of hypoglycemia. A limitation of the study was its relatively short duration.

CONCLUSIONS: Pramlintide, as an adjunct to basal insulin, was associated with improvements in several cardiovascular risk markers, warranting long-term clinical studies to determine its potential effects on cardiovascular risk.

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