Roles of human epidermal growth factor receptor 2, c-jun NH2-terminal kinase, phosphoinositide 3-kinase, and p70 S6 kinase pathways in regulation of cyclin G2 expression in human breast cancer cells

Xiao-Feng Le, Aruni S Arachchige-Don, Weiqun Mao, Mary C Horne, Robert C Bast
Molecular Cancer Therapeutics 2007, 6 (11): 2843-57
The CCNG2 gene that encodes the unconventional cyclin G2 was one of the few genes up-regulated on anti-human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) antibody-mediated inhibition of HER2 signaling. The purpose of this study was to explore how HER2 signaling modulates cyclin G2 expression and the effect of elevated cyclin G2 on breast cancer cell growth. Treatment of breast cancer cells that overexpress HER2 (BT474, SKBr3, and MDAMB453) with the anti-HER2 antibody trastuzumab or its precursor 4D5 markedly up-regulated cyclin G2 mRNA in vitro and in vivo, as shown by real-time PCR. Immunoblot and immunofluorescence analysis with specific antibodies against cyclin G2 showed that anti-HER2 antibody significantly increased cyclin G2 protein expression and translocated the protein to the nucleus. Trastuzumab was not able to induce cyclin G2 expression in cells weakly expressing HER2 (MCF7) or in cells that had developed resistance to trastuzumab. Enforced expression of HER2 in T47D and MDAMB435 breast cancer cells reduced cyclin G2 levels. Collectively, these data suggest that HER2-mediated signaling negatively regulates cyclin G2 expression. Inhibition of phosphoinositide 3-kinase (LY294002), c-jun NH(2)-terminal kinase (SP600125), and mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR)/p70 S6 kinase (p70S6K; rapamycin) increased cyclin G2 expression. In contrast, treatment with inhibitors of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (SB203580), mitogen-activated protein kinase/extracellular signal-regulated kinase kinase 1/2 (U0126), or phospholipase Cgamma (U73122) did not affect cyclin G2 expression. Anti-HER2 antibody in combination with LY294002, rapamycin, or SP600125 induced greater cyclin G2 expression than either agent alone. Ectopic expression of cyclin G2 inhibited cyclin-dependent kinase 2 activity, Rb phosphorylation, cell cycle progression, and cellular proliferation without affecting p27(Kip1) expression. Thus, cyclin G2 expression is modulated by HER2 signaling through multiple pathways including phosphoinositide 3-kinase, c-jun NH(2)-terminal kinase, and mTOR signaling. The negative effects of cyclin G2 on cell cycle and cell proliferation, which occur without altering p27(Kip1) levels, may contribute to the ability of trastuzumab to inhibit breast cancer cell growth.

Full Text Links

Find Full Text Links for this Article


You are not logged in. Sign Up or Log In to join the discussion.

Trending Papers

Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read

Save your favorite articles in one place with a free QxMD account.


Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"