Hypertonic saline solution for renal failure prevention in patients with decompensated heart failure

Victor Sarli Issa, Fernando Bacal, Sandrigo Mangini, Rodrigo Moreno Dias Carneiro, Cristiano Humberto Naves de Freitas Azevedo, Paulo Roberto Chizzola, Silvia Moreira Ayub Ferreira, Edimar Alcides Bocchi
Arquivos Brasileiros de Cardiologia 2007, 89 (4): 251-5

BACKGROUND: Hyponatremia and congestive phenomena indicate a bad prognosis in decompensated heart failure. The occurrence of renal failure is associated to an increased death risk.

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the safety and efficacy of the hypertonic saline solution in patients with decompensated heart failure for renal failure prevention.

METHODS: Patients with decompensated heart failure, congestion and hyponatremia participated in the study. In addition to the standard treatment, the patients received hypertonic saline solution and were submitted to clinical as well as laboratory assessment.

RESULTS: Nine patients were enrolled in the study. Mean age was 55 + 14.2 years, being 5 male (55.5%) and 4 (44.5%) female patients. All of them presented functional class III-IV of the New York Heart Association (NYHA), and 5 (55.5%) received dobutamine. All of them presented initial creatinine > 1.4 mg/dl. The mean tonicity of the solution was 4.39% + 0.018% (2.5% to 7.5%) and the duration of treatment was 4.9 days + 4.1 days (1-15 days). There were no severe adverse effects; none of the patients presented clinical worsening or neurologic disorders; hypokalemia occurred in 4 cases (44.5%). The comparison of the variables before and after treatment showed a decrease in urea (105 mg/dl + 74.8 mg/dl vs. 88 mg/dl + 79.4 mg/dl; p = 0.03) and increase in the urinary volume (1,183 ml/day vs. 1,778 ml/day; p = 0.03); there was no tendency to creatinine decrease (2.0 mg/dl + 0.8 mg/dl vs. 1.7 mg/dl + 1.0 mg/dl; p = 0.08). Despite the elevation in sodium levels (131 mEq/l + 2.8 mEq/l vs. 134 mEq/l + 4.9 mEq/l) and weight decrease (69.5 kg + 18.6 kg vs. 68.2 kg + 17.1 kg), there was no statistically significant difference.

CONCLUSION: The use of hypertonic saline solution in patients with decompensated heart failure can be a safe therapeutic method and potentially related to clinical improvement and renal failure prevention.

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