Trends in energy and nutrient intake and risk of inadequate intakes in Catalonia, Spain (1992-2003)

Lluís Serra-Majem, Lourdes Ribas-Barba, Gemma Salvador, Lluís Jover, Blanca Raidó, Joy Ngo, Antoni Plasencia
Public Health Nutrition 2007, 10 (11A): 1354-67

OBJECTIVES: To analyse trends in energy and nutrient intakes and nutritional adequacy from 1992 to 2003.

DESIGN: Two consecutive cross-sectional studies carried out on random samples of the Catalan population ENCAT 1992-93 and ENCAT 2002-03. Dietary intake was assessed by means of two 24-hour recalls on non-consecutive days. Spanish food consumption tables were used. Energy and nutrient data were adjusted for intraindividual variability, and the Spanish recommend nutrient intakes (RNIs) were used in the analysis.

SETTING: Catalonia region, North Eastern Spain.

SUBJECTS: Analysis is based on a total of 4701 individuals; 2641 from ENCAT 1992-93 (1210 men and 1431 women) and 2060 from ENCAT 2002-03 (954 men and 1106 women), aged 10-75 years.

RESULTS: No relevant changes in energy intake trends were observed, although a decrease was observed in the daily consumption of proteins (-7 g), cholesterol (-56 mg), potassium (-245 mg), vitamin A (-283 RE microg), retinoids (-71 microg), carotenoids (-1520 microg), niacin (-29 mg), folates (-15 microg), vitamin B12 (-1.6 microg) vitamin D (-0.5 microg), fibre and iron, and an increase in the consumption of calcium (+57 mg) and a slight increase in lipids and fatty acids (% energy). In general, the most outstanding trends were those of vitamin A (as a result of the decreased consumption of offal), proteins, vitamin D and B12 (due to the decreased consumption of meat and fish) and calcium (as a consequence of the increased consumption of dairy products).

CONCLUSION: No changes were observed in the energy intake of males or females; therefore, the obesity changes may possibly be attributed to changes in physical activity patterns. However, an increase in energy sources of a poorer nutritional profile has been identified, especially for between meal snacks.

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