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Percutaneous stenting of superior vena cava syndrome: treatment outcome in patients with benign and malignant etiology.

Vascular 2007 September
Symptomatic obstruction of the superior vena cava (SVC) can be caused by either intrathoracic malignancy or nonmalignant etiology resulting in superior vena cava syndrome (SVCS). The objective of this study was to evaluate the clinical outcome of percutaneous stenting of SVCS in patients with malignant and benign disease. During a 9-year period, 56 patients with SVCS underwent percutaneous stenting placement. Among them, malignant and benign disease was responsible for 40 patients (71%) and 16 patients (29%), respectively. The Wallstent was the most commonly used stent and was used in 45 patients (80%), whereas the Palmaz stent was used in 6 patients (11%). In 38 patients (68%), a single stent was deployed to treat an SVC lesion. In contrast, bilateral kissing stents were deployed in 9 patients (16%), which extended from bilateral brachiocephalic veins to the proximal SVC. Technical success was achieved in all patients while symptomatic improvement was noted in 54 patients (96%). No procedural complications occurred in this series. Primary patency in malignant and benign cases at 1 year was 64% and 76%, respectively. Overall symptom-free survival ranged from 1 to 34 months. Our study showed that endovascular treatment with percutaneous stenting provides an effective treatment strategy in patients with SVCS caused by either malignant or benign disease.

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