All-trans retinoic acid increases oxidative metabolism in mature adipocytes

Josep Mercader, Lise Madsen, Francisco Felipe, Andreu Palou, Karsten Kristiansen, M Luisa Bonet
Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry 2007, 20 (6): 1061-72

BACKGROUND/AIMS: In rodents, retinoic acid (RA) treatment favors loss of body fat mass and the acquisition of brown fat features in white fat depots. In this work, we sought to examine to what extent these RA effects are cell autonomous or dependent on systemic factors.

METHODS: Parameters of lipid metabolism and related gene expression were analyzed in differentiated 3T3-L1 adipocytes after exposure to RA or vehicle.

RESULTS: Treatment with RA resulted in decreased cellular triacylglycerol content and increased basal lipolysis and fatty acid oxidation rate. At the mRNA level, RA treatment led to a reduced expression of adipogenic/lipogenic transcription factors (peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma, CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein alpha, rexinoid receptor alpha) and two purported suppressors of lipolysis and oxidative metabolism (CIDEA and receptor-interacting protein 140), and to an increased expression of proteins favoring fat oxidation (peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator-1alpha, uncoupling protein 2, fasting-induced adipose factor, enzymes of mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation). These changes paralleled inactivation of the retinoblastoma protein and were preceded by an early RA-induced phosphorylation of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase. UCP1 expression was not induced.

CONCLUSION: The results indicate that RA directly favors remodeling of mature 3T3-L1 adipocytes in culture toward increased oxidative metabolism.

Full Text Links

Find Full Text Links for this Article


You are not logged in. Sign Up or Log In to join the discussion.

Related Papers

Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read

Save your favorite articles in one place with a free QxMD account.


Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"